Course design should incorporate one of several models of instructional design. This will assist in translating adult learning principles into plans for training materials, activities, information resources, and evaluation. Here is a brief overview of three models that can be applied to classroom-based or web-based training.
The instructional design model called “ADDIE” is an acronym which stands for the main components of a process: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. Training materials (content) are produced as the course author progresses through the cycle.
- Analysis. Who are the learners? What are the expectations for the course?
- Design. What is the assessment plan? Course outline?
- Develop. Which training materials must be produced?
- Implement. How can the course be launched?
- Evaluate. What changes that need to be made to the course?
Backward Design Model
Backward Design strategy describes a process of designing curriculum and learning experiences to meet specified purposes. Beginning with the end in mind (objectives), the course author identifies evidence of learning (performance), and then produces training materials (content) that equip the learners to perform.
- Identify learning outcomes (objectives). What are participants expected to understand, know, and do?
- Determine acceptable evidence (performance). What would you accept as evidence that participants learned?
- Plan learning experiences and instruction (content) and evaluation strategies. What activities will enable participants to achieve the outcomes (objectives)? How will they demonstrate what they can do?
Problem Based Learning Model
Problem Based Learning is the process of formulating problems as a context for participants to acquire skills and basic knowledge. Design is centered on solving real-world scenarios, typically in the form of case-studies. Training materials (content) are produced as the author provides resources to enable solution-finding (Rees, 2010).
- Define the problem. What do you think? What would you do? What needs to be considered prior to beginning work?
- Identify possible solutions. Which resources do participants need to solve the problem?
- Outline an action plan. What feedback, facts, concepts, and principles can instructors provide to point the participants in the right direction?